First, if you're on Windows 7, make sure you have SP1 (this is not always obvious - Windows Update may not show SP1 available in some circumstances).
To see if you have Windows SP1, you can run "winver" or check the Windows Build Number in your DxDiag output - Build 7600 is pre-SP1, Build 7601 is SP1.
If you need to apply Windows 7 SP1 and it's not showing up in Windows Updates, you can download the full installer and manually apply it from here (look for the _X64 option when you press Download): https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=5842
After SP1 is complete (one or more reboots are likely), you should run Windows Updates again and look for additional updates. If you did not see an update named KB2999226 applied, please manually obtain and install it from here: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=49093
If you do NOT have Windows 7, or still have problems after all of the above, you may need to (re) install one or more of the Visual C Runtimes.
There are multiple versions of vcredist_x64 (MS doesn't include the version in the name - long story) - for safety's sake let's make sure all the versions are installed:
You want both the _x86 and _x64 versions of each.